ch15-api-json-server

We have been using a json file src/heroes/heroes.json in the Heroes component. Our app is not talking to a backend. It would be ideal to have a fake REST API instead, and json-server can enable that. Add the following packages to our app:

yarn add -D concurrently json-server

Create a db.json file in the project root and copy the below content to it.

{
  "heroes": [
    {
      "id": "HeroAslaug",
      "name": "Aslaug",
      "description": "warrior queen"
    },
    {
      "id": "HeroBjorn",
      "name": "Bjorn Ironside",
      "description": "king of 9th century Sweden"
    },
    {
      "id": "HeroIvar",
      "name": "Ivar the Boneless",
      "description": "commander of the Great Heathen Army"
    },
    {
      "id": "HeroLagertha",
      "name": "Lagertha the Shieldmaiden",
      "description": "aka Hlaðgerðr"
    },
    {
      "id": "HeroRagnar",
      "name": "Ragnar Lothbrok",
      "description": "aka Ragnar Sigurdsson"
    },
    {
      "id": "HeroThora",
      "name": "Thora Town-hart",
      "description": "daughter of Earl Herrauðr of Götaland"
    }
  ],
  "villains": [
    {
      "id": "VillainMadelyn",
      "name": "Madelyn",
      "description": "the cat whisperer"
    },
    {
      "id": "VillainHaley",
      "name": "Haley",
      "description": "pen wielder"
    },
    {
      "id": "VillainElla",
      "name": "Ella",
      "description": "fashionista"
    },
    {
      "id": "VillainLandon",
      "name": "Landon",
      "description": "Mandalorian mauler"
    }
  ]
}

Add a script to package.json near to the "start" script. This will usr the db.json file and respond with that content at localhost:4000, with a 1 second simulated network delay.

{
  "scripts": {
    "start:api": "json-server --watch db.json --port 4000 --delay 1000"
  }
}

yarn start:api and browse to http://localhost:4000/heroes or http://localhost:4000/villains. We should see some data.

Update package.json scripts as below. The changes make it so that the UI server is always served together with the api server. This way the repo user can abstract away the backend needs while using the repo.

"scripts": {
  "start": "react-scripts start",
  "start:api": "json-server --watch db.json --port 4000 --delay 1000",
  "dev": "concurrently -k yarn:start yarn:start:api",
  "build": "react-scripts build",
  "test": "react-scripts test",
  "test:coverage": "yarn test --watchAll=false --coverage",
  "test:debug": "node --inspect-brk ./node_modules/jest/bin/jest.js --watch --runInBand",
  "format": "prettier --ignore-path .gitignore --write \"**/*.+(js|json|css|md|mdx|html)\"",
  "lint": "eslint . --cache-location node_modules/.cache/eslint",
  "typecheck": "tsc --noEmit",
  "validate": "npm-run-all --parallel format lint typecheck build",
  "cy:open": "cypress open --e2e --browser chrome",
  "cy:open-e2e": "concurrently -k yarn:start:api 'server-test 3000 cy:open'",
  "cy:run-e2e": "concurrently -k yarn:start:api 'server-test 3000 cy:run'",
  "cy:open-ct": "cypress open --component --browser chrome",
  "cy:run-ct": "cypress run --component --browser chrome"
},

For CI, update .github/workflows/main.yml cypress-e2e-test section > Cypress GitHub action command > start property from yarn start to yarn dev. This will ensure that the start command not only starts the UI server, but also the backend.

cypress-e2e-test:
  needs: [install-dependencies]
  runs-on: ubuntu-latest
  container: cypress/included:10.7.0 # or whatever is the latest
  steps:
    - uses: actions/checkout@v3

    - uses: bahmutov/npm-install@v1.8.21
      with: { useRollingCache: true }

    - name: Cypress e2e tests 🧪
      uses: cypress-io/github-action@v4.2.0
      with:
        install: false
        # update from yarn start to yarn dev
        start: yarn dev
        wait-on: "http://localhost:3000"
        browser: chrome
      env:
        GITHUB_TOKEN: ${{ secrets.GITHUB_TOKEN }}

Backend-e2e

Cypress is a great tool as an API client to test any live backend; check out CRUD API testing a deployed service with Cypress. We can write backend e2e tests that ensure that the backend works properly. With json-server this is not needed, but we want to showcase a real life example and also we will use some of these api commands in the UI e2e CRUD tests to setup and clean up state. In the real world, most likely the backend would be in a separate repo and host its own Cypress api e2e tests. The common commands that would also be used in the front end would most likely be hosted in an internal Cypress test package; check out a guide about that here.

We create a backend-e2e test to show case TDD with Cypress api testing. Create a file cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts, and request a simple GET.

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  it("should ", () => {
    const url = "http://localhost:4000/heroes";

    cy.request({
      method: "GET",
      url,
    })
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0);
  });
});

Start the runner with yarn cy:open-e2e and execute the test. If we scrutinize the console, we can view the array of 6 heroes in the body.

We can test deeper and ensure that each entity has id, name and description properties.

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  it("should ", () => {
    const url = "http://localhost:4000/heroes";
    type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };

    cy.request({
      method: "GET",
      url,
    })
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each((entity: Hero) => {
        expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
        expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
        expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
      });
  });
});

It would be more ideal to have the backend served on a /api route so that it is not confused by the front end, and it is more aligned with the convention. Modify the url with this change for a failing test (Red 1).

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  it("should ", () => {
    const url = "http://localhost:4000/api/heroes";
    type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };

    cy.request({
      method: "GET",
      url,
    })
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each((entity: Hero) => {
        expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
        expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
        expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
      });
  });
});

To satisfy the change, we need 2 modifications. First, create a file routes.json at the project root:

{
  "/api/*": "/$1"
}

Modify the package.json script by appending --routes routes.json so that this file is used.

"start:api": "json-server --watch db.json --port 4000 --delay 1000 --routes routes.json",

We can have a similar test for villains with a slight refactor (Refactor 1).

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  it("should GET heroes and villains ", () => {
    const apiUrl = "http://localhost:4000/api";
    type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };

    cy.request({
      method: "GET",
      url: `${apiUrl}/heroes`,
    })
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each((entity: Hero) => {
        expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
        expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
        expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
      });

    cy.request({
      method: "GET",
      url: `${apiUrl}/villains`,
    })
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each((entity: Hero) => {
        expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
        expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
        expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
      });
  });
});

We can refactor that further to be DRYer.

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  const apiUrl = "http://localhost:4000/api";
  type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };

  const assertProperties = (entity: Hero) => {
    expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
  };

  const getRoute = (route: string) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "GET",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
    });

  it("should GET heroes and villains ", () => {
    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);

    getRoute("villains")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);
  });
});

Let's write a new test, this time adding a hero and verifying that it got added.

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  const apiUrl = "http://localhost:4000/api";
  type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };

  const assertProperties = (entity: Hero) => {
    expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
  };

  const getRoute = (route: string) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "GET",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
    });
  it("should GET heroes and villains ", () => {
    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);

    getRoute("villains")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);
  });

  const postRoute = (route: string, body: Hero) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "POST",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      body,
    });

  it("should create a new hero entity", () => {
    const newHero = { id: "Ragnarok", name: "Ragnar", description: "Lothbrok" };

    postRoute("heroes", newHero);

    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .then((body) => {
        expect(body.at(-1)).to.deep.eq(newHero);
      });
  });
});

The test initially seems to work, alas rerunning it we get a 500 error, because the entity we created already exists (Red 2).

There are a few ways to handle this. We could randomize the entity, and or we could delete the entity at the end of the test. We will do those to demo best practices, however the sure proof way to deal with it is to reset the server state at the beginning of the test. We could additionally ensure that the test cleans up after itself, later.

Install json-server-reset with yarn add -D json-server-reset. Modify the package.json by appending the middleware, which enables a /reset route for our api. Any time a POST request is made to the reset route with a payload, the db.json file resets to that payload.

"start:api": "json-server --watch db.json --port 4000 --delay 1000 --routes routes.json --middlewares ./node_modules/json-server-reset"

Make sure to remove the additional entity added to db.json in our initial test, and reset the db to its original state. Remove:

{
  "id": "Ragnarok",
  "name": "Ragnar",
  "description": "Lothbrok"
}

Now all we need is a payload, however if we import db.json to our test and also use it to reset itself, reset call will keep repeating infinitely. Make a copy of db.json to cypress/fixtures/db.json, so that we can import from there and also fully be able to stub our network later. We can modify our script to reset the data before each test as shown below (Green 2).

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
import data from "../../fixtures/db.json";

describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  const apiUrl = "http://localhost:4000/api";
  type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };

  const assertProperties = (entity: Hero) => {
    expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
  };

  const getRoute = (route: string) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "GET",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
    });

  const postRoute = (route: string | "reset", body: Hero | object) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "POST",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      body,
    });

  const resetData = () => postRoute("reset", data);

  beforeEach(resetData);

  it("should GET heroes and villains ", () => {
    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);

    getRoute("villains")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);
  });

  it("should create a new hero entity", () => {
    const newHero = { id: "Ragnarok", name: "Ragnar", description: "Lothbrok" };

    postRoute("heroes", newHero);

    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .then((body) => {
        expect(body.at(-1)).to.deep.eq(newHero);
      });
  });
});

We can now add the rest of the test to update and delete the hero. Note that we are able use the id property in a route to get, update or delete that entity directly. Since we have a passing test, we keep adding new tests until we run into a failure. We are effectively testing json-server, therefore failures are not likely. This is the common scenario when applying a TDD-like approach after the development is done, therefore the true value of TDD is realized during development. Let's enhance the test with an update and delete (Refactor 2).

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
import data from "../../fixtures/db.json";

describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  const apiUrl = "http://localhost:4000/api";
  type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };

  const assertProperties = (entity: Hero) => {
    expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
  };

  const getRoute = (route: string) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "GET",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
    });

  const postRoute = (route: string, body: Hero | object) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "POST",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      body,
    });

  const editRoute = (route: string, body: Hero | object) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "PUT",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      body,
    });

  const deleteRoute = (route: string) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "DELETE",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
    });

  const resetData = () => postRoute("reset", data);

  beforeEach(resetData);

  it("should GET heroes and villains ", () => {
    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);

    getRoute("villains")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);
  });

  it("should create a new hero entity", () => {
    const newHero = { id: "Ragnarok", name: "Ragnar", description: "Lothbrok" };

    postRoute("heroes", newHero);

    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .then((body) => {
        expect(body.at(-1)).to.deep.eq(newHero);
      });

    const editedHero = { ...newHero, name: "Murat" };
    editRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`, editedHero);
    getRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`)
      .its("body")
      .should("deep.eq", editedHero);

    deleteRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`);
  });
});

The test taking responsibility for the db state is a best practice. Here we have create update delete all under one block, but another approach could be like the below. The duplicated sub steps are highlighted in bold.

  • Creation

    • UI create

    • API delete

  • Update

    • API create

    • UI update

    • API delete

  • Delete

    • API create

    • UI delete

As you can see, covering the update scenario satisfies it all, otherwise there is duplication between the tests.

After the final delete, we should ensure that the entity is removed from the database. Add a final get to check for this (Red 3).

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
import data from "../../fixtures/db.json";

describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  const apiUrl = "http://localhost:4000/api";
  type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };

  const assertProperties = (entity: Hero) => {
    expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
  };

  const getRoute = (route: string) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "GET",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
    });

  const postRoute = (route: string, body: Hero | object) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "POST",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      body,
    });

  const editRoute = (route: string, body: Hero | object) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "PUT",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      body,
    });

  const deleteRoute = (route: string) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "DELETE",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
    });

  const resetData = () => postRoute("reset", data);

  beforeEach(resetData);

  it("should GET heroes and villains ", () => {
    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);

    getRoute("villains")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);
  });

  it("should CRUD a new hero entity", () => {
    const newHero = { id: "Ragnarok", name: "Ragnar", description: "Lothbrok" };

    postRoute("heroes", newHero);

    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .then((body) => {
        expect(body.at(-1)).to.deep.eq(newHero);
      });

    const editedHero = { ...newHero, name: "Murat" };
    editRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`, editedHero);
    getRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`)
      .its("body")
      .should("deep.eq", editedHero);

    deleteRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`);
    getRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`).its("status").should("eq", 404);
  });
});

We will get a failure about the 404 status because Cypress retries commands (for 4 seconds) until it succeeds. If we have a check for a non-200 code, we should allow the api calls to fail.

cy.request has two properties we love to control:

  • retryOnStatusCodeFailure: Whether Cypress should automatically retry status code errors under the hood. Cypress will retry a request up to 4 times if this is set to true.

  • failOnStatusCode : Whether to fail on response codes other than 2xx and 3xx

We can control those two together in an argument flag allowedToFail with default value of false. When we expect to have non-200 status codes, we can set that to true. Here is the api enhancement (Green 3).

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
import data from "../../fixtures/db.json";

describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  const apiUrl = "http://localhost:4000/api";
  type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };

  const assertProperties = (entity: Hero) => {
    expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
  };

  const getRoute = (route: string, allowedToFail = false) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "GET",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      retryOnStatusCodeFailure: !allowedToFail,
      failOnStatusCode: !allowedToFail,
    });

  const postRoute = (route: string, body: Hero | object) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "POST",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      body,
    });

  const editRoute = (route: string, body: Hero | object) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "PUT",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      body,
    });

  const deleteRoute = (route: string) =>
    cy.request({
      method: "DELETE",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
    });

  const resetData = () => postRoute("reset", data);

  beforeEach(resetData);

  it("should GET heroes and villains ", () => {
    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);

    getRoute("villains")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);
  });

  it("should CRUD a new hero entity", () => {
    const newHero = { id: "Ragnarok", name: "Ragnar", description: "Lothbrok" };

    postRoute("heroes", newHero);

    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .then((body) => {
        expect(body.at(-1)).to.deep.eq(newHero);
      });

    const editedHero = { ...newHero, name: "Murat" };
    editRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`, editedHero);
    getRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`)
      .its("body")
      .should("deep.eq", editedHero);

    deleteRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`);
    getRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`, true).its("status").should("eq", 404);
  });
});

We can refactor the api to be better readable and extendible by putting the options in an object. This way, if there are multiple options, their order does not matter. If no options are passed in, it defaults to an empty object. This refactor also allows us to add new options in the future, and the api user can pick and choose which ones to utilize.

We can also improve the type by casting the cy.request response, indicating the type of the value we will get.

const getRoute = (
  // required args
  route: string,
  // options, some can have default values
  // {optional args}: {their types} = {}
  { allowedToFail = false }: { allowedToFail?: boolean } = {}
) =>
  cy.request<Hero[] & Hero>({
    method: "GET",
    url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
    retryOnStatusCodeFailure: !allowedToFail,
    failOnStatusCode: !allowedToFail,
  });

Here is the refactored test (Refactor 3).

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
import data from "../../fixtures/db.json";

describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  const apiUrl = "http://localhost:4000/api";
  type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };

  const assertProperties = (entity: Hero) => {
    expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
  };

  const getRoute = (
    route: string,
    { allowedToFail = false }: { allowedToFail?: boolean } = {}
  ) =>
    cy.request<Hero[] & Hero>({
      method: "GET",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      retryOnStatusCodeFailure: !allowedToFail,
      failOnStatusCode: !allowedToFail,
    });

  const postRoute = (route: string, body: Hero | object) =>
    cy.request<Hero>({
      method: "POST",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      body,
    });

  const editRoute = (route: string, body: Hero | object) =>
    cy.request<Hero>({
      method: "PUT",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      body,
    });

  const deleteRoute = (route: string) =>
    cy.request<Hero>({
      method: "DELETE",
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
    });

  const resetData = () => postRoute("reset", data);

  beforeEach(resetData);

  it("should GET heroes and villains ", () => {
    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);

    getRoute("villains")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);
  });

  it("should CRUD a new hero entity", () => {
    const newHero = { id: "Ragnarok", name: "Ragnar", description: "Lothbrok" };

    postRoute("heroes", newHero);

    getRoute("heroes")
      .its("body")
      .then((body) => {
        expect(body.at(-1)).to.deep.eq(newHero);
      });

    const editedHero = { ...newHero, name: "Murat" };
    editRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`, editedHero);
    getRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`)
      .its("body")
      .should("deep.eq", editedHero);

    deleteRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`);
    getRoute(`heroes/${editedHero.id}`, { allowedToFail: true })
      .its("status")
      .should("eq", 404);
  });
});

That is a better readable api, but there is some duplication between the CRUD functions. Consider the below function that can do any crud operation, with type safety. method and route are required. body and allowedToFail flag are optional, if they are not passed in then body is empty but allowedToFail still is false. If the body is passed in and the method is POST or PUT, the payload will be taken, otherwise undefined for GET and DELETE.

const crud = (
  // required args
  method: "GET" | "POST" | "PUT" | "DELETE",
  route: string,
  // optional args
  // {optional args}: {their types} = {}
  {
    body,
    allowedToFail = false,
  }: { body?: Hero | object; allowedToFail?: boolean } = {}
) =>
  cy.request<Hero[] & Hero>({
    method: method,
    url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
    body: method === "POST" || method === "PUT" ? body : undefined,
    retryOnStatusCodeFailure: !allowedToFail,
    failOnStatusCode: !allowedToFail,
  });

Here is the refactor using the above function (Refactor 4):

import data from "../../fixtures/db.json";

describe("Backend e2e", () => {
  const apiUrl = "http://localhost:4000/api";
  type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };

  const assertProperties = (entity: Hero) => {
    expect(entity.id).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.name).to.be.a("string");
    expect(entity.description).to.be.a("string");
  };

  const crud = (
    method: "GET" | "POST" | "PUT" | "DELETE",
    route: string,
    {
      body,
      allowedToFail = false,
    }: { body?: Hero | object; allowedToFail?: boolean } = {}
  ) =>
    cy.request<Hero[] & Hero>({
      method: method,
      url: `${apiUrl}/${route}`,
      body: method === "POST" || method === "PUT" ? body : undefined,
      retryOnStatusCodeFailure: !allowedToFail,
      failOnStatusCode: !allowedToFail,
    });

  const resetData = () => crud("POST", "reset", { body: data });

  beforeEach(resetData);

  it("should GET heroes and villains ", () => {
    crud("GET", "heroes")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);

    crud("GET", "villains")
      .its("body")
      .should("have.length.gt", 0)
      .each(assertProperties);
  });

  it("should CRUD a new hero entity", () => {
    const newHero = { id: "Ragnarok", name: "Ragnar", description: "Lothbrok" };

    crud("POST", "heroes", { body: newHero });

    crud("GET", "heroes")
      .its("body")
      .then((body) => {
        expect(body.at(-1)).to.deep.eq(newHero);
      });

    const editedHero = { ...newHero, name: "Murat" };
    crud("PUT", `heroes/${editedHero.id}`, { body: editedHero });
    crud("GET", `heroes/${editedHero.id}`)
      .its("body")
      .should("deep.eq", editedHero);

    crud("DELETE", `heroes/${editedHero.id}`);
    crud("GET", `heroes/${editedHero.id}`, { allowedToFail: true })
      .its("status")
      .should("eq", 404);
  });
});

When we have ui e2e tests, we will want to use this command for setup and teardown. We can move it to a utility file, and import from there to each test that needs it. Usually the rule of the thumb is to use a utility file, and import the function from there if there are 2-3 imports. Anything beyond that is more suited from a Cypress command. Let's create a command to showcase how that can be achieved.

We kept adding tests, and got green repeatedly. Now we can keep refactoring until we are happy with the result.

Add the command crud and resetData to Cypress commands (Refactor 4).

// cypress/support/commands.ts
import "@testing-library/cypress/add-commands";
import data from "../fixtures/db.json";

Cypress.Commands.add("getByCy", (selector, ...args) =>
  cy.get(`[data-cy="${selector}"]`, ...args)
);

Cypress.Commands.add("getByCyLike", (selector, ...args) =>
  cy.get(`[data-cy*=${selector}]`, ...args)
);

Cypress.Commands.add("getByClassLike", (selector, ...args) =>
  cy.get(`[class*=${selector}]`, ...args)
);

export type Hero = { id: string; name: string; description: string };
Cypress.Commands.add(
  "crud",
  (
    method: "GET" | "POST" | "PUT" | "DELETE",
    route: string,
    {
      body,
      allowedToFail = false,
    }: { body?: Hero | object; allowedToFail?: boolean } = {}
  ) =>
    cy.request<Hero[] & Hero>({
      method: method,
      url: `http://localhost:4000/api/${route}`,
      body: method === "POST" || method === "PUT" ? body : undefined,
      retryOnStatusCodeFailure: !allowedToFail,
      failOnStatusCode: !allowedToFail,
    })
);

Cypress.Commands.add("resetData", () =>
  cy.crud("POST", "reset", { body: data })
);

Add the type definition of the command to ./cypress.d.ts.

// cypress.d.ts

/* eslint-disable @typescript-eslint/no-explicit-any */
import { MountOptions, MountReturn } from "cypress/react";
import type { Hero } from "./cypress/support/commands";

export {};
declare global {
  namespace Cypress {
    interface Chainable {
      /** Yields elements with a data-cy attribute that matches a specified selector.
       * ```
       * cy.getByCy('search-toggle') // where the selector is [data-cy="search-toggle"]
       * ```
       */
      getByCy(qaSelector: string, args?: any): Chainable<JQuery<HTMLElement>>;

      /** Yields elements with data-cy attribute that partially matches a specified selector.
       * ```
       * cy.getByCyLike('chat-button') // where the selector is [data-cy="chat-button-start-a-new-claim"]
       * ```
       */
      getByCyLike(
        qaSelector: string,
        args?: any
      ): Chainable<JQuery<HTMLElement>>;

      /** Yields the element that partially matches the css class
       * ```
       * cy.getByClassLike('StyledIconBase') // where the class is class="StyledIconBase-ea9ulj-0 lbJwfL"
       * ```
       */
      getByClassLike(
        qaSelector: string,
        args?: any
      ): Chainable<JQuery<HTMLElement>>;

      /** Mounts a React node
       * @param component React Node to mount
       * @param options Additional options to pass into mount
       */
      mount(
        component: React.ReactNode,
        options?: MountOptions
      ): Cypress.Chainable<MountReturn>;

      /**
       * Performs crud operations GET, POST, PUT and DELETE.
       *
       * `body` and `allowedToFail are optional.
       *
       * If they are not passed in, body is empty but `allowedToFail` still is `false`.
       *
       * If the body is passed in and the method is `POST` or `PUT`, the payload will be taken,
       * otherwise undefined for `GET` and `DELETE`.
       * @param method
       * @param route
       * @param options: {body?: Hero | object; allowedToFail?: boolean}
       */
      crud(
        method: "GET" | "POST" | "PUT" | "DELETE",
        route: string,
        {
          body,
          allowedToFail = false,
        }: { body?: Hero | object; allowedToFail?: boolean } = {}
      ): Cypress.Chainable<Response<Hero[] & Hero>>;

      /**
       * Resets the data in the database to the initial data.
       */
      resetData(): Cypress.Chainable<Response<Hero[] & Hero>>;
    }
  }
}

Use the commands in the spec file. We will do a final touch up here to use faker for the data we are working with. yarn add -D @faker-js/faker (Refactor 4).

// cypress/e2e/backend/crud.cy.ts
import type {Hero} from '../../support/commands'
import {faker} from '@faker-js/faker'

describe('Backend e2e', () => {
  const assertProperties = (entity: Hero) => {
    expect(entity.id).to.be.a('string')
    expect(entity.name).to.be.a('string')
    expect(entity.description).to.be.a('string')
  }

  beforeEach(() => cy.resetData())

  it('should GET heroes and villains ', () => {
    cy.crud('GET', 'heroes')
      .its('body')
      .should('have.length.gt', 0)
      .each(assertProperties)

    cy.crud('GET', 'villains')
      .its('body')
      .should('have.length.gt', 0)
      .each(assertProperties)
  })

  it('should CRUD a new hero entity', () => {